Cardiac Pacemaker

Cardiac Pacemaker

A pacemaker is a small device that's placed (implanted) in the chest to help control the heartbeat. It's used to prevent the heart from beating too slowly. Implanting a pacemaker in the chest requires a surgical procedure.

Cardiac Pacemaker

A pacemaker is a small device that's placed (implanted) in the chest to help control the heartbeat. It's used to prevent the heart from beating too slowly. Implanting a pacemaker in the chest requires a surgical procedure.

Types

Depending on your condition, you might have one of the following types of pacemakers.
» Single chamber pacemaker. This type usually carries electrical impulses to the right ventricle of your heart.
» Dual chamber pacemaker. This type carries electrical impulses to the right ventricle and the right atrium of your heart to help control the timing of contractions between the two chambers.
» Biventricular pacemaker. Biventricular pacing, also called cardiac resynchronization therapy, is for people who have heart failure and heartbeat problems. This type of pacemaker stimulates both of the lower heart chambers (the right and left ventricles) to make the heart beat more efficiently.

Why is the Procedure Performed?

A pacemaker is implanted to help control your heartbeat. Your doctor may recommend a temporary pacemaker when you have a slow heartbeat (bradycardia) after a heart attack, surgery or medication overdose but your heartbeat is otherwise expected to recover. A pacemaker may be implanted permanently to correct a chronic slow or irregular heartbeat or to help treat heart failure.

When your heart beats too slowly, your body and brain may not get enough oxygen. Symptoms may be
» Lightheadedness
» Tiredness
» Fainting spells
» Shortness of breath

Some pacemakers can be used to stop a heart rate that is too fast (tachycardia) or that is irregular.
Other types of pacemakers can be used in severe heart failure. These are called biventricular pacemakers. They help coordinate the beating of the heart chambers.
Most biventricular pacemakers implanted today can also work as implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). ICD restore a normal heartbeat by delivering a larger shock when a potentially deadly fast heart rhythm occurs.

How does your heart beat?

The heart is a muscular, fist-sized pump with four chambers, two on the left side and two on the right. The upper chambers (right and left atria) and the lower chambers (right and left ventricles) work with your heart's electrical system to keep your heart beating at an appropriate rate — usually 60 to 100 beats a minute for adults at rest.
Your heart's electrical system controls your heartbeat, beginning in a group of cells at the top of the heart (sinus node) and spreading to the bottom, causing it to contract and pump blood. Aging, heart muscle damage from a heart attack, some medications and certain genetic conditions can cause an irregular heart rhythm.

What does a pacemaker do?

Pacemakers work only when needed. If your heartbeat is too slow (bradycardia), the pacemaker sends electrical signals to your heart to correct the beat.
Some newer pacemakers also have sensors that detect body motion or breathing rate and signal the devices to increase heart rate during exercise, as needed.
A pacemaker has two parts:
Pulse generator. This small metal container houses a battery and the electrical circuitry that controls the rate of electrical pulses sent to the heart.
Leads (electrodes). One to three flexible, insulated wires are each placed in one or more chambers of the heart and deliver the electrical pulses to adjust the heart rate. However, some newer pacemakers don't require leads. These devices, called leadless pacemakers, are implanted directly into the heart muscle.

Risks

Possible complications of pacemaker surgery are:
» Abnormal heart rhythms
» Bleeding
» Punctured lung. This is rare.
» Infection
» Puncture of the heart, which can lead to bleeding around the heart. This is rare.

A pacemaker senses if the heartbeat is above a certain rate. When it is above that rate, the pacemaker will stop sending signals to the heart. The pacemaker can also sense when the heartbeat slows down too much. It will automatically start pacing the heart again.

How you prepare

Before your doctor decides if you need a pacemaker, you'll have several tests done to find the cause of your irregular heartbeat. Tests done before you get a pacemaker could include:
» Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). This quick and painless test measures the electrical activity of the heart. Sticky patches (electrodes) are placed on the chest and sometimes the arms and legs. Wires connect the electrodes to a computer, which displays the test results. An ECG can show if the heart is beating too fast, too slow or not at all.
» Holter monitoring. A Holter monitor is a small, wearable device that keeps track of the heart's rhythm. Your doctor may want you to wear a Holter monitor for 1 to 2 days. During that time, the device records all of your heartbeats. Holter monitoring is especially useful in diagnosing heartbeat problems that occur at unpredictable times. Some personal devices, such as smartwatches, offer electrocardiogram monitoring. Ask your doctor if this is an option for you.
» Echocardiogram. This noninvasive test uses sound waves to produce images of the heart's size, structure and motion.
» Stress test. Some heart problems occur only during exercise. For a stress test, an electrocardiogram is taken before and immediately after walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike. Sometimes, a stress test is done along with echocardiography or nuclear imaging.

Before the Procedure

Always tell your health care provider about all the drugs you are taking, even drugs or herbs you bought without a prescription.

The day before your surgery:
» Shower and shampoo well.
» You may be asked to wash your whole body below your neck with a special soap.

On the day of the surgery:

» You may be asked not to drink or eat anything after midnight the night before your procedure. This includes chewing gum and breath mints. Rinse your mouth with water if it feels dry, but be careful not to swallow.
» Take the drugs you have been told to take with a small sip of water.

After the Procedure

You will probably be able to go home after 1 day or even the same day in some cases. You should be able to return to your normal activity level quickly.

Ask your provider how much you can use the arm on the side of your body where the pacemaker was placed. You may be advised not to:
» Lift anything heavier than 10 to 15 pounds (4.5 to 6.75 kilograms)
» Push, pull, and twist your arm for 2 to 3 weeks.
» Raise your arm above your shoulder for several weeks

Outlook (Prognosis)

Pacemakers can help keep your heart rhythm and heart rate at a safe level for you. The pacemaker battery lasts about 6 to 15 years. Your provider will check the battery regularly and replace it when necessary.

Best Pacemaker Surgery at GMCH

Geetanjali Hospital provides the Best Pacemaker Surgeon in Udaipur. The professional & experienced surgeons have performed many successful surgeries with best of results.
Being the Best hospital in Udaipur, GMCH provides best medical services.

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  • A pacemaker is a small device that's placed (implanted) in the chest to help control the heartbeat. It's used to prevent the heart from beating too slowly. Implanting a pacemaker in the chest requires a surgical procedure.


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